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  • Poems Paraphrase
  • Word and their meanings : Population Explosion in Pakistan Unit 4:
  • (every) now and again/then : from time to time; occasionally


    Every now and again she checked to see if he was still asleep.


    come across sb/sth : [ no passive ] to meet or find sb/sth by chance


    I came across children sleeping under bridges.


    She came across some old photographs in a drawer.


    literally: adverb in a literal way Syn: exactly


    The word ‘planet’ literally means ‘wandering body’.


    When I told you to ‘get lost’ I didn't expect to be taken literally .


    Idioms usually cannot be translated literally into another language.


    factors : noun [ countable ] one of several things that cause or influence sth


    emerge: to appear or become known


    inception : beginning


    census: noun ( pl. cen • suses ) the process of officially counting sth, especially a country's population, and recording various facts


    to take a census


    comity of nations; mutual respect among nations.


    civility; polite behaviour


    villain: noun 1 the main bad character in a story, play, etc


    He often plays the part of the villain.


    2 the person or thing that is responsible for all the trouble in a situation


    It's hard to identify the real villain in this case.


    mindful: adjective remembering sb/sth and considering them or it when you do sth Syn: conscious


    mindful of our responsibilities


    Mindful of the danger of storms, I decided not to go out.


    asset: valuable belongings of a person


    crossroads: at an important point of somebody's life


    devise: to make a new plan to do something


    hamper : to prevent someone


    hazard :
    danger , threat


    liability: legally responsible , burden


    progmatic : solving problems in a sensible and practical way


    stagnat : adjective


    1 stagnant water or air is not moving and therefore smells unpleasant


    Few fish survive in the stagnant waters of the lake.


    2 not developing, growing or changing


    Syn: static a stagnant economy , a stagnant population


    The housing market has been largely stagnant over the past few months.


    urbanization: noun


    1 ( of an area, a country, etc. ) having a lot of towns, streets, factories, etc. rather than countryside


    2 ( of people ) living and working in towns and cities rather than in the country


    corruption: noun


    1 [ uncountable ] dishonest or illegal behaviour, especially of people in authority


    2 [ uncountable ] the act or effect of making sb change from moral to immoral standards of behaviour


    3 [ countable ,  usually singular ] the form of a word or phrase that has become changed from its original form in some way


    The word ‘holiday’ is a corruption of ‘holy day’.


    erupt : verb


    [ intransitive ] to start happening, suddenly and violently


    Syn : break out Violence erupted outside the embassy gates.


    imperil : verb to put sth/sb in danger Syn: endanger


    menace: a possible source of danger or harm


    Syn: threat get something across:


    to be communicated or understood; to succeed in communicating something.


    1. your meaning did not really get across.


    2. He is not very good at getting his ideas across.


    vision: noun [ uncountable ] the ability to think about or plan the future with great imagination and intelligence Syn: foresight


    a leader of vision


    He's a competent politician, but he lacks vision.


    hesitate: verb


    1 [ intransitive ,  transitive ] to be slow to speak or act because you feel uncertain or nervous


    She hesitated before replying.


    he who hesitates (is lost) ( saying ) if you delay in doing sth you may lose a good opportunity
  • Help the others

Unit 2


Unit 6


The Income Tax Man


Q.1: What is the author's first impression on the visitor?


Ans: The author's first impression was that the visitor was a business man. He thought that the visitor had come there to open a shop in their neighborhood.


Q.2: Who is the narrator?


Ans: Actually, Mark Twin is the narrator. Here in this essay he has presented himself a business man. He is under the misconception that the visitor is also a business man. But unlike, the visitor is an assessor of income tax department.


Q.3: What is unusual about the opening part of the story? Does it contain any hidden implication?


Ans: The opening part of the essay is unusual in the sense that it is ambiguous. The narrator thinks that the visitor is a business man who has come to open a shop in their neighborhood. But actually the visitor is an assessor. The hidden implication is that whatever the narrator should have kept secret, he is unknowingly disclosing it


Q.4: Why did he start asking the stranger about his business?


Ans: The visitor told the author that he was an assessor. The author did not know the meaning of the word 'assessor'. He was of the opinion that the stranger was a business man. He thought that the man was opening a shop in their neighborhood. That is why he started asking him about his business.


Q.5: Is the author against paying taxes or criticizing the people who do not pay taxes?


Ans: Actually, the author want to criticize those people who do not pay taxes. In this essay he says that in order to escape taxes, people do not show their real assets or income which they have.


Q.6: Why did the author call his cook and say, "Hold me while is faint"?


Ans: While leaving, the stranger handed the author a large envelope. When the author opened it, he saw a form there which described the income of the author as well as the huge income tax which he was bound to pay. That made him so sad that he was about to lose his senses. That is why he called his cook and told him to hold him as he was going to faint.


Q.7: In what way was the author able to save income tax?


Ans: The author was able to save income tax by visiting a very rich man who did not pay any tax. The man took the author's papers and made some calculations. He wrote down falsely state, national and city taxes which the writer has paid. Then he mentioned the losses due to flood, fire and so many other losses which he had suffered. Thus the author had been shown a person whose annual income was only one thousand, two hundred and fifty dollars.


Q.8: What did the envelope contain?


Ans: The envelope contained a form having a long list of questions. All the questions were related to the author's private affairs. The form also contained a report showing his income which he received from different sources. Lastly, it contained the income tax which the author had to submit in the government treasury.


Q.9: What is your impression of the,"very best of the rich men of the city"?


Ans: The above phrase means that the rich people were considered the best one. They are given great respect. They are given preference over poor people. They themselves consider themselves superior to common people. But when the question of income tax arises, these people commit tax evasion by showing themselves poor. They show big losses in their business.


Q.10: What is the essence of the title?


Ans: The title of the essay is "The Income-Tax Man". Tax is the amount of money which people pay to the government according to the level of their income. People, all over the world, try to escape income tax. For this purpose they do not show their real income or other valuable things which they have in their possession.


Unit 8:


Tobacco And Your Health


Q.1: What is the warning written of the package of cigarette?


Ans: The package of cigarette contains warning against smoking. It says that smoking is injurious to health. Every government tries to make people aware of the danger affects of smoking. For this purpose it bounds the cigarette maker to write on each package that smoking causes damage to health.


Q.2: Who did not know about the dangers of cigarette smoking?


Ans: The people of the past did not know about the dangers of cigarette smoking. They did not know that the smoke from tobacco contains poisonous substances which are injurious to health. It was not in their knowledge that chewing tobacco was as harmful as smoking tobacco.


Q.3: How does tobacco damage health?


Ans: Tobacco damages health in many ways. The heart beat of smoker is fast. His blood pressure is high. Tobacco replaces a portion of oxygen in blood by carbon monoxide which is a dangerous gas. Tobacco contains nicotine which make the blood vessel narrower.


Q.4: Name the three most dangerous substances in cigarette?


Ans: The three most dangerous substances in cigarette are nicotine, carbon monoxide and tar. Nicotine reduces the flow of blood in the body. Carbon monoxide lowers the oxygen level in blood. Tar damages lung tissues.


Q.5: Why do the blood vessels become narrower?


Ans: The blood vessels become narrower because of nicotine. Tobacco contains nicotine which make the blood vessels narrow and narrow. When the blood vessels become narrower, more pressure falls on the heart


to pump blood through the body.


Q.6: What lower the oxygen level in a smoker's body?


Ans: Carbon monoxide lowers the oxygen level in a smoker's body. It is very harmful gas. It replaces part of the oxygen in blood.


Q.7: In what way a smoker suffers from Chronic Bronchitis?


Ans: Chronic Bronchitis is a lung disease. A smoker suffers from this disease when the smoke affects the lining of bronchial tubes. As a result, the tubes produce too much mucus which blocks the air tubes. In order to get rid of it, the smoker coughs a lot.


Q.8: What is the second cause of death among smokers?


Ans: Lung cancer is the second cause of death among smokers. It is very dangerous disease. The only treatment of it is to remove all or part of the diseased lung.


Q.9: Why do smoker's find it difficult to quit this bad habit?


Ans: Smoker's find it difficult to quit this bad habit because of the presence of nicotine in tobacco. Nicotine is an oily substance which causes physical dependence. The smoker's bodies become very much used to this substance. Its lack causes nervous reaction. Thus it is not easy for smoker's to quit smoking.


Q.10: How does a non-smoker get affected by smoking?


Ans: When a smoker smokes, about two thirds of the smoke form his cigarette spreads in the air around the smoker. When a non-smoker breathes that smoke in, his body is affected the same as that of the smoker. Medical experts have reached the conclusion that those who live in the company of smokers have a greater risk of getting lung cancer.


Q.11: Why do many countries prohibit smoking at public places?


Ans: Many countries prohibit smoking at public places in order to save the non-smoker's from the danger of smoking.


It is a fact that when a non-smoker breathes in the smoke emitted by a smoker, his body is affected the same as that of the smoker. So, it is a sensible action to ban smoking at public places.


Q.12: What is the international No Smoking Symbol?


Ans: The international No Smoking Symbol is that of a picture of burning cigarette with a single or double line drawn across it.


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Grade X English Notes

Unit 7

Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA)



Short Questions of Hazrat Umar Farooq (R.A)


Question 1 : When and where was Hazrat Umar (R.A) born?


Ans : Hazrat Umar (RA) was born in Makkah in 40 B.H ( before Hijra).


Question 2 : What kind of life did Hazrat Umar (R.A) lead?


Ans: Hazrat Umar (RA) led a very simple life.


Question 3 : Why was the Arab surprised by the strange question of envoy?


Ans : The envoy asked about the palace of the caliph. As the caliph led a life of ordinary people having no palace at all. That was why the Arab was surprised to hear about the palace.


Question 4 : What was his view about the Baith ul Mal?


Ans : He said about the Baith ul Mal that he had no more authority over the Baith-ul-Maal than a custodian has over the property of an orphan.


Question 5 : What did a Governor had to sign on his appointment?


Ans : Every governor had to sign a bond on his appointment that he would put on coarse clothes, and would eat coarse bread and that the complaint would have and easy access to his presence at any time.


Question 6 : What did the caliph do to feed the hungry family?


Ans: The caliph at once hurried to Madina, brought back a bag of flour on his back and fed the hungry family.


Question 7 : Did the caliph take honey from the Baith ul Mal without permission?


Ans: No, he did not take a drop of it unless he was permitted by people's committee to do so.


Unit 9

Muslims of China


Q.1: Why didn't Ma Chang feel cut off from his fellow Muslims?


Ans: Ma Chang did not feel cut off from his fellow Muslims because there was no check on the Muslims in China. There, they were allowed to pray the way the Muslims prayed. They could observe all those rules which the Muslims throughout the world observed. They could lead their lives the way the Holy Prophet (SAW) had instructed the Muslims to lead.


Q.2: What happened in the 8th century?


Ans: In the 8th century, the Muslims armies reached the borders of China. Before China was captured, Caliph Waleed bin Abdul-Malik died and the General was killed. After death of the Caliph and General, the Muslims army made peace with the Chinese Emperor. The army turned back but left some Muslims in China who were allowed by the Emperor to live there peacefully.


Q.3: How did the Muslim merchants reach China and where did they settle?


Ans: The Muslim merchants reached China by sea. They settled in big ports.


Q.4: Who was Ibn-e-Batuta and when did he reach China?


Ans: Ibn-e-Batuta was a very great Arab traveler. He reached China in 14th century. He liked the country very much. He praised the good government of China and its five roads in his book which he wrote about his travels.


Q.5: When was people's Republic of China set up?


Ans: People's Republic of China was set up in 1949. It was set up in Peking. It was a communist government.


Q.6: Who was Yang and how did his mother teach him a lesson?


Ans: Yang was a poor boy.His father died when he was only three years old. His mother weaved cloth which she used to sell so that her son could get good education. When one day she saw that her son had run away from school, she cut into pieces the cloth which she had been weaving for several days. On his asking, the mother told him that he would not be so sad at spoiling the cloth as she was at his leaving the school. These words of his mother affected him so much that wen back to school at once and started working hard.


Q.7: How did Chang help his father in the field?


Ans: Chang helped his father in the field by spending a lot of his time there. He worked hard in the field so that they could have a great yield. He took care of the young shoots and the leaves of the beans, peas, tomatoes and potatoes which had just sprouted.


Q.8: Where is the Yellow River and why is it named so?


Ans: The Yellow River is in China. It is the second longest river in Asia and the sixth longest in the word. Its estimated length is 5464 kilometers. It is called the Yellow River because it brings with it a great deal of yellow mug which deposited in the plain.


Q.9: Name the famous crops of China?


Ans: The famous crops of China are corn, rice, soya beans are millet etc. Corn is the main crop of northern China where rice is very expensive. Rice is the main crop grown mainly in southern portion of China. Crops grow in abundance in China on account of having yellow mud which the Yellow River carries along with it.


Q.10: Where is the Great Wall of China situated and what are its dimensions?


Ans: The Great Wall of China is situated along the northern border of China. It is made of bricks and stones. It is about 30 feet high and 13 fee wide. There are watch-towers for the soldiers to keep watch on enemies.



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